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Submitted or on Rxiv

  • Beerendonk, L., Mejías, JF.,  Nuiten, SA., de Gee,  JW., Fahrenfort, JJ. van Gaal, S. A disinhibitory circuit mechanism explains a general principle of peak performance during mid-level arousal [paper] [data and code].


  • Sánchez-Fuenzalida, N., van Gaal, S. Fleming, SM. Haaf, JM, Fahrenfort, JJ. Predictions and rewards affect decision making but not subjective experience. [paper] [data and code].


  • Sánchez-Fuenzalida, N., van Gaal, S. Fleming, SM. Haaf, JM, Fahrenfort, JJ. Non-sensory information affects confidence during perceptual decision-making, PNAS (in press) [paper] [data and code].

  • Nuiten, SA. De Gee JW. Zantvoord, JB, Fahrenfort, JJ & van Gaal, S. Catecholaminergic neuromodulation and selective attention jointly shape perceptual decision making. eLife (2023) [paper] [data and code].

  • Canales-Johnson, A. Beerendonk, L., Chennu, S., Ince, R.A.A., van Gaal, S. Feedback information transfer in the human brain reflects bistable perception in the absence of report. PLOS Biology  (2023) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J. Lampers, E. Slagter, H.A. & van Gaal, S. The perceptual nature of illusory object recognition. Plos Biology (2023)[paper] [data and code]

  • Johnson, P.A., Blom, T., van Gaal, S., Feuerriegel, D. Bode, S. Hogendoorn, H. Position representations of moving objects align with real-time position in the early visual response. eLife (2023)[paper] [data and code]


  • Francken, J.C., Beerendonk, L.,  Molenaar, D., Fahrenfort, J.J. Kiverstein, J.D. Seth, A.K. & van Gaal, S. An academic survey on theoretical foundations, common assumptions and the current state of the field of consciousness science. Neuroscience of consciousness (2022)  [paper] [data and code].

  • Overbeek, B., Lavrijsen, J., van Gaal, S., Kondziella, D., Eilander, H., Koopmans, R. Clinical significance of visual pursuit and visual fixation in patients with disorders of consciousness. A Delphi Study. Journal of Neurology (2022) [paper]


  • Nuiten, S. A., Canales-Johnson, A., Beerendonk, L., Nanuashvili, N., Fahrenfort, J. J., Bekinschtein, T., & van Gaal, S. Preserved sensory processing but hampered conflict detection when stimulus input is task-irrelevant. eLife (2021) [paper]  [video animation] [data and code].

  • Dijkstra, N., van Gaal, S., Geerlings, L., Bosch, S. & van Gerven, M. No evidence for neural overlap between unconsciously processed and imagined stimuli. eNeuro (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • Stein, T., Kaiser, D., Fahrenfort, J.J. & van Gaal, S. The human visual system differentially represents subjectively and objectively invisible stimuli. PLoS Biology (2021) [paper] [data and code]


  • Seijdel, N., Loke, J., van de Klundert, R., van der Meer, M., Quispel, E., van Gaal, S., de Haan, E. & Scholte, H. S. On the necessity of recurrent processing during object recognition: it depends on the need for scene segmentation. Journal of Neuroscience (2021). [paper[data and code]

  • de Gee, J. W., Correa, C. M.C. , Weaver, M., Donner, T. H. & van Gaal, S. Pupil dilation and the slow wave ERP reflect surprise about choice outcome resulting from intrinsic variability in decision confidence. Cerebral Cortex (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., van Moorselaar, D. Graetz, M. van Gaal, S.* & Slagter, H.A.* Representational dynamics preceding conscious access. Neuroimage (2021) (*shared senior authors) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., Slagter, H. A. & van Gaal, S. Subjective visibility report is facilitated by conscious predictions only. Consciousness and Cognition (2021) [paper] [data and code]


  • Fahrenfort, J.J. & van Gaal, S. Criteria for empirical theories of consciousness should focus on the explanatory power of mechanisms, not on functional equivalence. Cognitive Neuroscience (2020). [opinion paper

  • Canales-Johnson, A. Beerendonk, L., Blain, S., Kitaoka, S., Ezquerro-Nassar, A., Nuiten, S.A., Fahrenfort, J.J. van Gaal, S.* & Bekinschtein, T.A.*. Decreased alertness reconfigures cognitive control networks. Journal of Neuroscience (2020) (*shared senior authors) [paper] [data and code]

  • Wiers, R.W., van Gaal, S. & Le Pelley, M.E. Akrasia and addiction: Neurophilosophy and psychological mechanisms. Social Neuroeconomics: Integrating the Neurosciences and the Social Sciences. (Eds: J. Harbecke and C. Herrmann-Pillath) [review paper]

  • Arnts, H., Groenewegen, H. , Lavrijsen, J., van Gaal, S., van Erp, W. & van den Munckhof, P.. On the pathophysiology and treatment of akinetic mutism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (2020). [review paper]

  • Baas, M., Boot, N., van Gaal, S., De Dreu, C.W.K. & Cools, R. Methylphenidate does not affect convergent and divergent creative processes in healthy adults. Neuroimage, 205, (2020) [paper]


  • Mongelli, V., Meijs, E.L., van Gaal, S.* & Hagoort, P.* No language unification without neural feedback: How awareness affects sentence processing. (*shared senior authors). Neuroimage, 202, (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E.L., Mostert, P. Slagter, H.A. de Lange, F.P. & van Gaal, S. Exploring the role of expectations and stimulus relevance on stimulus-specific neural representations and conscious report. Neuroscience of Consciousness  (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., Timmermans, B. Reteig, L.C. van Gaal, S., & Slagter, H.A. No evidence that predictions and attention modulate the first feedforward sweep of cortical information processing. Cerebral Cortex (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Weaver, M.D. Fahrenfort, J.J., Belopolsky, A. van Gaal, S. Independent neural activity patterns for sensory- and confidence-based information maintenance during category-selective visual processing, eNeuro. (2019) 6(1) e0268-18.2018 1–13 [paper]

  • Michel, M. et al., Opportunities and challenges for a maturing science of consciousness, Nature Human Behavior. 3, 104-107 (2019) [opinion paper]



  • Fahrenfort, J.J., van Driel, J, van Gaal, S. & Olivers, C.N.L. From ERPs to MVPA Using the Amsterdam Decoding and Modeling Toolbox (ADAM). Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12: 368 (2018). [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E., Klaassen, F., Bokeria, L., van Gaal, S., de Lange, F. Cue predictability does not modulate bottom-up attentional capture. Royal Society Open Science (2018) [paper] [data and code]

  • Correa, C.M.C., Noorman, S. , Jiang, J. Palminteri, S., Cohen, M.X, Lebreton M., van Gaal, S. How the level of reward awareness changes the computational and electrophysiological signatures of reinforcement learning. Journal of Neuroscience. 38 (48) 10338-10348 (2018) [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E.L., Slagter, H. de Lange, F.P. & van Gaal, S. Dynamic interactions between top-down expectations and conscious awareness. Journal of Neuroscience 38 (9) 2318-2327 (2018) [paper]

  • Jiang, J. Correa, C.M.C., Geerts, J. & van Gaal, S. The relationship between conflict awareness and behavioral and oscillatory signatures of immediate and delayed cognitive control, Neuroimage 177, 11-19 (2018). [paper]












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