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Submitted or on Rxiv

  • Fahrenfort, J.J., Johnson, PA., Kloosterman, NA,  Stein, T., van Gaal, S. Criterion placement threatens the construct validity of neural measures of consciousness. In review. [biorxiv]

  • Nuiten, SA., De Gee, JW., Zantvoord, JB., Fahrenfort, JJ. & van Gaal, S. Pharmacological elevation of catecholamine levels improves perceptual decisions, but not metacognitive insight. [paper] [data and code]

  • Sánchez-Fuenzalida, N., van Gaal, S. Fleming, SM. Haaf, JM, Fahrenfort, JJ. Non-sensory information affects confidence during perceptual decision-making, [paper] [data and code].



  • Noorman, S, Stein, T, Zantvoord, J., Fahrenfort, JJ, van Gaal, S. NMDA receptor antagonist memantine selectively affects recurrent processing during perceptual inference. To appear in eLife [preprint] [data and code]

  • Noorman, S, Stein, T, Fahrenfort, JJ, van Gaal, S. Distinct neural mechanisms underlying perceptual and attentional impairments of conscious access. To appear in eLife [preprint] [data and code]

  • Stein, T., van Gaal, S., Fahrenfort, JJ. How (not) to demonstrate unconscious priming: Overcoming issues with post-hoc data selection, low power, and frequentist statistics, Consciousness and Cognition [paper] [preprint] [data and code]

  • Beerendonk, L., Mejías, JF.,  Nuiten, SA., de Gee,  JW., Fahrenfort, JJ. van Gaal, S. A disinhibitory circuit mechanism explains a general principle of peak performance during mid-level arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2024) [paper] [biorxiv] [data and code].


  • Sánchez-Fuenzalida, N., van Gaal, S. Fleming, SM. Haaf, JM, Fahrenfort, JJ. Predictions and rewards affect decision making but not subjective experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2023) [paper] [data and code].​​

  • Nuiten, SA. De Gee JW. Zantvoord, JB, Fahrenfort, JJ & van Gaal, S. Catecholaminergic neuromodulation and selective attention jointly shape perceptual decision making. eLife (2023) [paper] [data and code].

  • Canales-Johnson, A. Beerendonk, L., Chennu, S., Ince, R.A.A., van Gaal, S. Feedback information transfer in the human brain reflects bistable perception in the absence of report. PLOS Biology  (2023) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J. Lampers, E. Slagter, H.A. & van Gaal, S. The perceptual nature of illusory object recognition. Plos Biology (2023)[paper] [data and code]

  • Johnson, P.A., Blom, T., van Gaal, S., Feuerriegel, D. Bode, S. Hogendoorn, H. Position representations of moving objects align with real-time position in the early visual response. eLife (2023)[paper] [data and code]

  • Bouwer, FL., Fahrenfort, JJ., Millard, SK., Kloosterman, NA., Slagter, HA. A silent disco: Differential effects of beat-based and pattern-based temporal expectations on persistent entrainment of low-frequency neural oscillations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2023). [paper]

  • Mazor, M., Brown, S., Ciaunica, A., Demertzi, A., Fahrenfort, JJ., Faivre, N, Francken, JC. Lamy, D., Lenggenhager, B., Moutoussis, M., Nizzi, MC., Salomon, R., Soto, D., Stein, T., Lubianiker, N. The scientific study of consciousness cannot and should not be morally neutral. Perspectives on Psychological Science (2023). [paper


  • Francken, J.C., Beerendonk, L.,  Molenaar, D., Fahrenfort, J.J., Kiverstein, J.D. Seth, A.K. & van Gaal, S. An academic survey on theoretical foundations, common assumptions and the current state of the field of consciousness science. Neuroscience of consciousness (2022)  [paper] [data and code].

  • Overbeek, B., Lavrijsen, J., van Gaal, S., Kondziella, D., Eilander, H., Koopmans, R. Clinical significance of visual pursuit and visual fixation in patients with disorders of consciousness. A Delphi Study. Journal of Neurology (2022) [paper]

  • Fong, CY., Law, WHC., Fahrenfort, JJ., Braithwaite, JJ., Mazaheri, A. Attenuated alpha oscillation and hyperresponsiveness reveals impaired perceptual learning in migraineurs. The Journal of Headache and Pain (2022) [paper]


  • Nuiten, S. A., Canales-Johnson, A., Beerendonk, L., Nanuashvili, N., Fahrenfort, J. J., Bekinschtein, T., & van Gaal, S. Preserved sensory processing but hampered conflict detection when stimulus input is task-irrelevant. eLife (2021) [paper]  [video animation] [data and code].

  • Dijkstra, N., van Gaal, S., Geerlings, L., Bosch, S. & van Gerven, M. No evidence for neural overlap between unconsciously processed and imagined stimuli. eNeuro (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • Stein, T., Kaiser, D., Fahrenfort, J.J. & van Gaal, S. The human visual system differentially represents subjectively and objectively invisible stimuli. PLoS Biology (2021) [paper] [data and code]


  • Canales-Johnson, A., Teixeira Borges, AF., Komatsu, M., Fujii, N., Fahrenfort, JJ., Miller, KJ., Noreika, V. Broadband dynamics rather than frequency-specific rhythms underlie prediction error in the primate auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience (20221) [paper]

  • Seijdel, N., Loke, J., van de Klundert, R., van der Meer, M., Quispel, E., van Gaal, S., de Haan, E. & Scholte, H. S. On the necessity of recurrent processing during object recognition: it depends on the need for scene segmentation. Journal of Neuroscience (2021). [paper[data and code]

  • de Gee, J. W., Correa, C. M.C. , Weaver, M., Donner, T. H. & van Gaal, S. Pupil dilation and the slow wave ERP reflect surprise about choice outcome resulting from intrinsic variability in decision confidence. Cerebral Cortex (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., van Moorselaar, D. Graetz, M. van Gaal, S.* & Slagter, H.A.* Representational dynamics preceding conscious access. Neuroimage (2021) (*shared senior authors) [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., Slagter, H. A. & van Gaal, S. Subjective visibility report is facilitated by conscious predictions only. Consciousness and Cognition (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • van Driel, J., Olivers, CNL., Fahrenfort, JJ. High-pass filtering artifacts in multivariate classification of neural time series data. Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2021) [paper] [data and code]

  • Munneke, J., * Fahrenfort, JJ. *, Sutterer, D., Theeuwes, J., Awh, E. Multivariate analysis of EEG activity indexes contingent attentional capture. NeuroImage (2021) (*shared first authors) [paper] [data and code]

  • Kellij, S., Fahrenfort, JJ., Lau, H., Peters, MAK., Odegaard, B. An investigation of how relative precision of target encoding influences metacognitive performance. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics (2021) [paper] [data and code]


  • Fahrenfort, J.J. & van Gaal, S. Criteria for empirical theories of consciousness should focus on the explanatory power of mechanisms, not on functional equivalence. Cognitive Neuroscience (2020). [opinion paper

  • Canales-Johnson, A. Beerendonk, L., Blain, S., Kitaoka, S., Ezquerro-Nassar, A., Nuiten, S.A., Fahrenfort, J.J. van Gaal, S.* & Bekinschtein, T.A.*. Decreased alertness reconfigures cognitive control networks. Journal of Neuroscience (2020) (*shared senior authors) [paper] [data and code]

  • Kloosterman, NA., Kosciessa, JQ ., Lindenberger, U., Fahrenfort, JJ., Garrett, DD., Boosts in brain signal variability track liberal shifts in decision bias. eLife (2020) [paper]

  • Wiers, R.W., van Gaal, S. & Le Pelley, M.E. Akrasia and addiction: Neurophilosophy and psychological mechanisms. Social Neuroeconomics: Integrating the Neurosciences and the Social Sciences. (Eds: J. Harbecke and C. Herrmann-Pillath) [review paper]

  • Arnts, H., Groenewegen, H. , Lavrijsen, J., van Gaal, S., van Erp, W. & van den Munckhof, P.. On the pathophysiology and treatment of akinetic mutism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (2020). [review paper]

  • Baas, M., Boot, N., van Gaal, S., De Dreu, C.W.K. & Cools, R. Methylphenidate does not affect convergent and divergent creative processes in healthy adults. Neuroimage, 205, (2020) [paper]


  • Kloosterman, NA., de Gee, JW., Werkle-Bergner, M., Lindenberger, U., Garrett, DD., Fahrenfort, JJ. Humans strategically shift decision bias by flexibly adjusting sensory evidence accumulation. eLife (2019) [paper]

  • Fahrenfort, JJ. Multivariate methods to track the spatiotemporal profile of feature-based attentional selection using EEG. Spatial Learning and Attention Guidance (Ed: Pollmann, S.) [book chapter]

  • Ort, E., Fahrenfort, JJ., Reeder, R., Pollmann, S., Olivers, CNL. Frontal cortex differentiates between free and imposed target selection in multiple-target search. NeuroImage (2019) [paper]

  • Mongelli, V., Meijs, E.L., van Gaal, S.* & Hagoort, P.* No language unification without neural feedback: How awareness affects sentence processing. (*shared senior authors). Neuroimage, 202, (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E.L., Mostert, P. Slagter, H.A. de Lange, F.P. & van Gaal, S. Exploring the role of expectations and stimulus relevance on stimulus-specific neural representations and conscious report. Neuroscience of Consciousness  (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Alilović, J., Timmermans, B. Reteig, L.C. van Gaal, S., & Slagter, H.A. No evidence that predictions and attention modulate the first feedforward sweep of cortical information processing. Cerebral Cortex (2019). [paper] [data and code]

  • Weaver, M.D. Fahrenfort, J.J., Belopolsky, A. van Gaal, S. Independent neural activity patterns for sensory- and confidence-based information maintenance during category-selective visual processing, eNeuro. (2019) 6(1) e0268-18.2018 1–13 [paper]

  • Günseli, E.,  Fahrenfort, JJ., van Moorselaar, D., Daoultzis, KC., Meeter, M., Olivers, CNL. EEG dynamics reveal a dissociation between storage and selective attention within working memory. Scientific Reports (2019) [paper]

  • Michel, M. et al., Opportunities and challenges for a maturing science of consciousness, Nature Human Behavior. 3, 104-107 (2019) [opinion paper]

  • Ort, E., Fahrenfort, JJ., Ten Cate, T., Eimer, M., Olivers, CNL. Humans can efficiently look for but not select multiple visual objects. eLife (2019) [paper]

  • van den Boomen, C., Fahrenfort, JJ ., Snijders, TM., Kemner, C. Slow segmentation of faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Neuropsychologia (2019) [paper]

  • van Driel, J., Ort, E., Fahrenfort, JJ., Olivers, CNL. Beta and theta oscillations differentially support free versus forced control over multiple-target search. Journal of Neuroscience (2019) [paper]



  • Fahrenfort, J.J., van Driel, J, van Gaal, S. & Olivers, C.N.L. From ERPs to MVPA Using the Amsterdam Decoding and Modeling Toolbox (ADAM). Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12: 368 (2018). [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E., Klaassen, F., Bokeria, L., van Gaal, S., de Lange, F. Cue predictability does not modulate bottom-up attentional capture. Royal Society Open Science (2018) [paper] [data and code]

  • Correa, C.M.C., Noorman, S. , Jiang, J. Palminteri, S., Cohen, M.X, Lebreton M., van Gaal, S. How the level of reward awareness changes the computational and electrophysiological signatures of reinforcement learning. Journal of Neuroscience. 38 (48) 10338-10348 (2018) [paper] [data and code]

  • Meijs, E.L., Slagter, H. de Lange, F.P. & van Gaal, S. Dynamic interactions between top-down expectations and conscious awareness. Journal of Neuroscience 38 (9) 2318-2327 (2018) [paper]

  • Jiang, J. Correa, C.M.C., Geerts, J. & van Gaal, S. The relationship between conflict awareness and behavioral and oscillatory signatures of immediate and delayed cognitive control, Neuroimage 177, 11-19 (2018). [paper]



  • van Loon, A.M., Fahrenfort, J.J., van der Velde, B., Lirk, P.B., Vulink, N.C.C., Hollmann, M.W., Scholte, H.S., Lamme, V.A.F., NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine distorts object recognition by reducing feedback to early visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex (2016) [paper]

  • Vandenbroucke, A.R.E., Fahrenfort, J.J., Meuwese, J.D.I., Scholte, H.S., Lamme, V.A.F., Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human. Cerebral Cortex (2016) [paper]











  • Fahrenfort, J.J., Scholte, H.S., Lamme, V.A.F. Masking disrupts reentrant processing in human visual cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2007) [paper]

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